The Birth, Life and Death of Stars

The Birth, Life and Death of Stars




The formation of galaxies.

Elementary particles and their interactions play a decisive role in the understanding of the first moments of creation. Is the time that the four secular forces (strong, weak, electromagnetic, gravity), which in principle is integrated, but very quickly though separated and become distinct, had assumed responsibility for the Organization of matter. The strong binding by three quarks in protons and neutrons, and again the strong with the help of this time though weak, participates in the formation of nuclei from protons and neutrons, helium and very little deuterium.
After you complete and rather modest results the composition of cores (nucleon synthesis) now the electromagnetic force gets the baton. 


 The electrons are retained and bound into orbits around their cores and generate atoms. Having already spent a few hundred thousand years after the big bang and the ever-expanding universe that the temperature falls constantly, composed exclusively of hydrogen and helium atoms.
In terms of organization of matter, the first day, it didn't go so well. Instead of 92 different chemical elements that could be created, ultimately created only two: hydrogen and helium. So the first day at first glance, seems to be the great missed opportunity for the creation of a Universe with scalability to higher forms of material organization.

 But the missed opportunity had to be restored, and this time will mediate the fourth force: gravity. This force whose importance is zero or minimal on interactions between elementary particles and apparently played no role in the early stages of evolution of the universe, but has infinite range and for this reason its importance will be crucial from now on.


 After the initial stages of creating the image that shows the Universe is similar to that we admire through a telescope watching the Orion Nebula.  A huge cloud of hydrogen with sufficient quantity of impurity from helium. Under the influence of gravity now in huge smog begin to manifest some small changes. Although the gravitational attraction between the individual atoms of hydrogen is negligible, the huge concentrations of atoms but make it computable. In this way, if a random fluctuation in the cloud, and the random here indicates our ignorance, created in an area some accumulation of material accumulation that is from here and post an attraction for other people in the vicinity. With the constant attraction of atoms this centre is strengthened and as the avalanche, it increases its volume (density) and the material (mass). Because similar reactive centers it is possible to create multiple, original uniform cloud develops in scattered areas of concentrations of matter. The concentrations they are proto-galaxies, i.e. ancestors of today's galaxies. Eventually these proto-galaxies promised that the great opportunity not lost permanently.

  The Birth of a star.  

 The time that the Universe is composed anymore of various primary galaxies takes a few billion years after the big bang. Just as though the original uniform primordial cloud was compromised by the proto-galaxies, a random sub-condensates material in each proto-galaxy violates the uniformity and is the ancestors of the stars.
Such a sub-condensate having greater in intensity gravitational field than the rest of the area around it, is constantly. Sometime detaches from the rest of the material. In this gaseous mass that was detached, the gravitational force is still pushing and squeezing his atoms. But a well-known phenomenon appears now as atoms collide with each other increases the kinetic energy. The increase of kinetic energy involves warming. The collisions of atoms now are becoming more frequent as the density increases (the number of atoms who constantly pulled in the cloud) and temperature, and this in turn, increases and rises continually. Atoms stimulated and gas illuminates the characteristic wavelength of hydrogen.


 Converting gravitational energy into heat continues for a very long time and the condensate is becoming hotter and denser. Electronic shells of atoms starting to touch. When the total mass of condensate is small, as for example on Jupiter, the repulsive force between atoms balances the gravitational force that tends to smash. If the mass of the condensate is long and reaches a value of 0.6-0.8 solar mass, then the gravitational force persists, atoms penetrate into each other and the high temperature releases the electrons from the nuclei after the electromagnetic force is not able to hold back on their designated orbits. 
From particle collisions and the rapid movement of electrons between the bare nuclei, released huge amounts of light. The light emitted is not anymore the characteristic of hydrogen. Originally broadcasted in the radio frequencies and infrared, but as it increases the energy of photons shifted to the visible red spectrum length and betrayed the existence of, a star is born. 

 The stars then were not born one and out. Born evolve and die on time scales ranging from a few tens of millions to billions of years. Even the smallest mass stars live much longer. As material is available in primary fallout new stars are born and one generation succeeds another. The Orion Nebula is a star in our own private Galaxy spanning Length 17 light-years away. Newborn stars usually form groups or swarms, after many millions of years are divided into smaller groups. The Pleiades is a characteristic example of such flock in toddler indeed age. Only six stars of this cluster are visible with the naked eye. But Shakespeare in "Henry the 4th" describes the Pleiades as the seven stars, while Lord Byron mentioned in a poem of the "lost Pleiad that no longer seems". The young star had disappeared a century ago, a sample of unstable behavior of apparently.

 The Warm Life of stars.

The toddler the star's season doesn't last long. Because the gravitational force continues and tries to smash what she created, and as the nuclei of hydrogen atoms, protons, are now colliding with each other, the temperature is rising dramatically and another process dominates: the composition of increasingly complex nuclei. The star has entered at its nuclear age. The hydrogen literally burned at a temperature of around 10 million degrees, forming the beginning of deuterium and then helium. The nucleon synthesis, which appeared for only a few minutes after the big bang, resurfaces now and isn't going to leave from here onwards the cosmic game.
The star has already acquired how to defend against the gravitational force, while it’s born it, tends to constantly crush. Indeed, nuclear burning releases vast amounts of energy from the center of the star and the pressures generated moderate gravitational crushing. The compression of matter stops, the star is stabilized in size and for many millions of years living shining dazzling in dynamic equilibrium.


 A very large number of star in the night sky pass this phase, which takes millions of years, Sirius, Polar, Vega. It is, as they are called, main sequence stars. Sun himself is a prime example of star in maturity. The period of gravitational contraction shouldn't last more than 15 million years. Then he began at its core hydrogen transformed into helium and this inner life is staying now and four and a half billion years.

 The light and heat of stars caused by nuclear reactions, it has not been easy in scientific research to verify. Naive theories that attributed this action in the gravitational field, or even in charcoal that is burned, had been at times. Had the understanding of the equivalence of mass and energy, as a mere consequence the special theory of relativity and the development of quantum mechanics to give, after the Second World War, the correct interpretation of the phenomenon.




 Red Giants or red pre-stage of death.

Just like nothing lasts forever so the hydrogen burning ends sometime. The hydrogen in the core of the star is running out and what is left is dormant quantity helium. But since energy is not emitted anymore to face the force of gravity, the gravitational crushing starts a new cycle. The star contracts again from the beginning, the temperature of the violent clashes of cores goes up and soon reaches this time the hundred million degrees.

 Down from these conditions, start now the thermonuclear reactions of helium. From the union of three helium nuclei, a new element that its presence would be crucial in the evolution of matter makes its appearance: coal. But this time, the production of energy becomes with fearsome pace, as if under the spectrum of gravitational pinching the star to have panicked. The pressure from inside the star not only balances the gravitational force, but forcing the star to a horrifying expansion. From the star's surface energy emitted this time is to long wavelength and the star appears red. It's now a red giant. The red giant is from a dense and superheated core surrounded by a huge disk gas additive, dominated the hydrogen. From the ever increasing core temperature, caused by the burning sun, taking place increasingly sophisticated nuclear reactions. New chemical elements, which we are so familiar, appear: oxygen, magnesium, silicon. Since the helium sometime it ends, is the remnant combustion the coal, which takes series now in the combustion process. One after another, increasingly complex nuclei are created and in turn participate in burning.


 In their desperate attempt for defense against gravity, the stars use the ash from its previous nuclear waste. The period in which the stars become red giants is the period of life that makes their madness, spending energy bills. The only difference is that the stars are going through the stage of puberty after maturity, shortly before the end of their lives.

 All the stars are going through or will go through the red giant stage. But because the amount of time that a star becomes a red giant does not last long, are few Red Giants in each Galaxy. In our own galaxy, the most famous red giant Antares is located in the constellation of Scorpio, 600 light years away from us, and it's a few hundred times bigger than the Sun. Another red giant Aldebaran (in Arabic means the bull's-eye), is visible as a reddish spot in the constellation Taurus.


 Our Sun himself cannot avoid this process of the red giant. After about five billion years, a period that equals the life so far, after spending having burn hydrogen at its center, will become a red giant. The diameter and the dimensions will grow both, so we will cover and will burn a great part of our solar system. On Earth, if human stupidity has left intact until then, which by today's standards seems like pretentious science fiction, the temperature will increase tenfold, the oceans will evaporate. In this way, in the deep of old age; the Sun will destroy their loyal servants, the planets that accompanied him faithfully in its long course of from the moment of his birth.
Nuclear burning Star Wars well end up, in the synthesis of more complex nuclei, and represent a further step in how the material is organized. What they managed to create, failing, the vastly stronger and simultaneously elaborate big bang engine created and born or perhaps need to be born!, inside stars.

The serene death a small star.

After the birth of a star, this time I'll call infancy of Star follows a period of stability and finally reaches the length of that period that the reckless squandering of energy is a forced and inevitable process. The period of time that elapses is essentially a long and slow road to death, a death irreversible and sometimes violent and scary. The way in which dies each star is different, but is solely a function of the total mass of the star. Rank well in three categories of the stellar remnants (corpses): In white dwarfs, neutron stars and incomprehensible to the common human mind but also our imagination flushed black holes.


 When in the center (inside) of the star, after consecutive nuclear synthesis, created iron, then nuclear reactions of star stop, once the core of iron is a stable core. Stocks of fuel are exhausted and here goes something very paradoxical and strange at the same time, the fuel consumed by larger, the greater the mass of the star, so the stars mass require more fuel. Suffice it here to say that our Sun, which is comparatively a small-medium star "burns" six hundred million tones of hydrogen per second (600,000,000 tones/sec.) converting, into helium and energy with mass 3% deficit. Result of nuclear fusion is that gravity wins again and this time undisturbed, completes its work. Under the scary weight rinds surrounding the nucleus (think something like the onion), the star is compressed and dies.


 If the star's mass is small, say that compared to the mass of the Sun, the ending of the death star is a white dwarf, which name comes from the brilliance and dimensions. Over and above, to white dwarf, gravitational crushing cannot exist since this offset and is balanced by the pressure of electrons that coexist with the cores of ionization material. That's because it takes place a spectacular natural phenomenon: you don't need power consumption pressure of electrons to conserve. Based just on an impressive beginning of quantum mechanics, he hears the attribute name "Pauli exclusion principle". In the case of electrons, this principle is translated as follows: two electrons cannot be reduced to the same region of space, so they are necessarily very different speeds. Exactly for this reason tend to move away from each other and so the star tends to become balancing the gravitational force. In 1928 an Indian student Subramanian Chandrasekhar left by boat from his native country to study in England, in Cambridge. During his trip from India by, Chandrasekhar calculated how big can be a star, even though he has exhausted all its nuclear fuel can somehow keeps his balance and not fall apart. The Chandrasekhar realized though, that there is a limit in repelling that can supply the Pauli Exclusion Principle: the theory of relativity states that the difference of speeds of particles of matter inside the star cannot be greater than the speed of light. This means that when a star becomes quite dense, repelling resulting from the exclusion principle will be smaller than the pull of gravity.         Chandrasekhar calculated that a cold star with a mass greater than one and a half times around the Sun will not be able to maintain his balance and so will collapse by gravitational attraction. (This mass is now known as the Chandrasekhar limit). At the same time similar discovery did the Russian scientist Lev Landau. The Chandrasekhar limit has a significant impact on the final fate of the stars: If the mass is less than this limit, the star may cease to contract and remain in a final stage, the white dwarf.


 The size of white dwarfs is comparable to the size of the Earth, but differs in density by multiples. A teaspoon of matter of a white dwarf will weighed on Earth approximately fifty tons, since the density of a white dwarf is tens of tons per cubic centimeter. The high surface temperature that prevails in a white dwarf has resulted in the impressive splendor and so many have been identified by astronomic observations. The best known white dwarf revolves around Sirius, one of the most bright and well-known stars of heaven. Our Sun after the completion of the red giant phase would come in white dwarf. The continuous emission of radiation by white dwarfs leads them gradually to energy loss that is not renewed, bringing their splendor to decreasing and sometime their light switches off permanently. Wandering in the Universe continue most like dark, cold and invisible dwarves.

 The neutron stars.

 The above are done when the mass of the dying star is relatively small. The Landau proved, however, that if the mass of the star is a two times larger than the Sun, but radius smaller than the white dwarf, then there is another final stage for the death of the star. And these stars the repelling resulting from the exclusion principle will bring the pressure of gravitational attraction, but in this case it will be repelling between neutrons and protons, and not between electrons. 

 The huge plus gravitational force that crushes the star leads the material in an odd situation. The nuclei of atoms begin to touch each other and interact with the compressed electrons converts protons to neutrons. The star has now gained a giant nucleus of neutrons that are retained by the force of gravity and has turned into a neutron star.

 The radius of a neutron star does not exceed 10-20 kilometers, but although the dimensions are very small, weight is millions of times greater than Earth's alike. The density of a neutron star is indeed unrealistic, the value approaches and often reaches 1015 gr/cm3, while due to its small size, the rotational speed is breakneck and theoretically can reach the 3,000 revs per second. It is this rotation which showed the existence of neutron stars in space, because the rapid rotation creates a strong magnetic field and as a beacon that revolves around periodical illuminates entire area, neutron stars "illuminate" the Earth periodically, but not with visible light but with beams of radio waves. The frequency of pulses collected from earthly radio telescopes and other devices have great regularity. The time envisaged for first time the existence of them there was no way to observe the first crawl, which was in 1967, created some optimism and others convinced that maybe be addressed message from an alien civilization. Even the source of radio star took the striking name "little green men" until more mature views prevailed and strengthened the theoretical background of scientists for the course, evolution and death of stars.

  Over 300 vibrant sources of radio waves (pulsars) have been discovered till today in our galaxy. That in each of these there is a neutron star; there is no longer any doubt. Most known radio source has been identified in the Crab Nebula, to the point that the 1054a.d Chinese astronomers had recorded a huge star explosion. The neutron star that emits radio waves proved that is a remnant of this explosion and rotates with a frequency of 30 revolutions per second. The constellation of Vulpeculla, located 8,000 light years away, has discovered an impressive neutron star, which rotates with a frequency of 642 turns per second, while the theoretical calculations of scientists give value for the speed of points on the equator of this neutron star greater than one-tenth of the speed of light.



 The Super-deaths of major stars.

Death of a star when you run out of nuclear fuel, in white dwarf or neutron star can be seen as a mild, calm and dignified. The stars, however, have much more mass than the Sun are revolutionized to the process of complete collapse of their own material. Their last effort to avert collapse is to eject a large amount of matter in space. That blast each of them corresponds to a billion Suns, brilliance is the so-called yperkainofanis blasts (supernova). The explosion causes the final weakness of core to prevent gravitational collapse and this is why after consecutive rounds of nuclear synthesis, the core consists now of iron and as previously explained, the iron is stable and is not offered for fusion.

  The outer layers of the star, consisting of lighter elements, continue to balance it with the burning, but at its core the prevailing colossal gravitational forces crush repelling from the pressure of electrons and neutrons, transgressing the Pauli Exclusion Principle, here it seems anymore that all laws of physics crumble. The core of the star has now reached a size comparable to the dimensions of the Earth, crumbling and decaying in elementary particles. By proton and electron interaction produced neutrinos, that first they leave the scene of the disaster. From neutrinos are transported to the outer bark, huge amounts of energy and thereby speeds up the gravitational collapse that ends in a split second after it starts. But in the downtown core the density constantly grows and increases. When the value reach and approach the density of nuclear matter, neither neutrinos can any longer escape. Encapsulation of neutrinos constantly adds energy to the core, resulting in an explosive shock wave to break out some time and which is moving outward at a speed that reaches one-tenth that of light.

   It is so great the shock wave pressure that has resulted in the explosion of the star. The outer bark (layers) are forced with violence getting blinding speeds to form a cloud of hot gas (Nebula) radiating light, as a result of conflicts with the interstellar material.

  Such a Nebula located in the constellation Cygnus, is spreading into space even today at speeds exceeding the speed of sound. And is the gorgeous relic of a supernovas explosion that happened before years 20,000.
It's so bright and brilliant explosions supernova, made easily detectable even if star belongs to a distant galaxy. The brightness varies over a period of a few weeks and months and then the star vanishes from the sky.

  In our own Galaxy for several centuries were not observed eruptions supernovas’, unlike other galaxies that had already recorded several hundred, the latter observed by Keppler in 1,604a.d. and ironically, just before the construction of the telescope. Another known Supernova, that relic of the star that exploded is the Crab Nebula, recorded with the Chinese astrologers 1,054a.d. The Crab Nebula has a diameter of approximately 10 light-years.

  An explosion supernova observed recently in a small neighboring Galaxy to us. The explosion was visible in the morning of 24 February 1,987 and happened in the Magellanic Cloud, which is located at a distance of 160,000 light-years away. The explosion was visible only from the southern hemisphere and of course immediately garnered the interest of scientists. Each type of Earth or space telescopes has turned toward the bright point. A few hours before becoming visible supernovae, sensitive detectors in the United States and Japan had already recorded the arrival of neutrinos. As was forecasted in theory, neutrinos are leaving the scene of the first explosion, the star that exploded in known anymore as SN 1987 A, detected in astronomical catalogs named Sanduleak-69. Having mass 20 times the solar mass, stayed in "life" for 10 million years or so, but the end was spectacular. Supernovae SN 1987 a maintained by fluctuating its luster for several months. At its peak, the brilliance that convinced by 200 times that of the Sun, but by mid-June began to decline.

   It was the first generation of scientists, who had the good fortune to attend with precision and with advanced instruments and techniques a supernova explosion. To attend, of course, in retrospect. Because the light and neutrinos from the supernova had begun their journey, transferring knowledge and information, 160,000 years ago, at a time when the human race on Earth, discover the technique of fire.

  The data collected by the eruption of supernova confirms theoretical conceptions for the stellar evolution. Impressively, the Universe offered the advocacy of and verification the amazing abilities of the human mind.

  With the explosion of supernova, not sprayed all over the star's mass into space. Some of the remaining core remnant. And has, this relic, the ability to end his life as a white dwarf or neutron star. This capability tried desperately to secure, drastically reducing its weight, the original big star. The neutron star which, as mentioned, emits regular radio palms from the Crab Nebula is the remnant of a dead supernova who observed the Chinese astronomers at the beginning of the Millennium. In another Nebula in the constellation Vela, who also is the remnant of a supernova, used to identify a neutron star with an age of about 11,000 years. If at some point, a pulsating pulsar indicated the presence of the SN 1987 A, this theoretical insight into the evolution of a big star will acquire one more powerful foothold.



 Our life due to their death.

The ejection of terrifying quantities of matter into space from the explosion of a supernova energy appears wasteful, especially for millions of years before the star's death, the material she suffered painful and persistent nuclear processing and contained elements difficult to synthesize.

  "Nothing is pointless, nothing superfluous», wrote Aristotle in this case, this is more than true. Why, in some or some similar explosions supernovas’ owe and we and our existence. The inmost yearning and "conceited" of man to connect with eternity and with the life cycle of stars identified here with the scientific belief.

   Because, the material from the star that exploded, and rapidly spreads in space, mingled with the primordial cosmic fluid. The interstellar gas close to the site of the explosion is not anymore only of hydrogen and helium. Contains trace amounts of heavier elements that nuclear burning created inside the star. Indeed, the cataclysmic explosion creates such conditions; even more complex nuclear reactions are possible. Atomic nuclei heavier than iron, and with much more complicated structure, such as silver, gold or uranium, appear for the first time in the secular realm. Even though the quantities of material of these components are a very small percentage of the cosmic fluid, but they are no longer components. Very later every kernel of these elements captures a certain number of electrons-as there are protons and obtains identity as an individual. Therefore, if new stars, stars second-generation explicit proposal from the cosmic fluid, except for hydrogen and helium will contain a variety of heavier elements. Sun himself, having found that it contains heavier elements, be at least second-generation star. And from the moment that our Earth pulls away by the Sun, is beneficial to the presence of these elements in the atmosphere, on land and in the oceans.

   Of course, it is a fascinating image, strange and magical and exceeds the measures of everyday life: that coal to paper books, gold shining gracing the neck of a woman or phosphorus fish formed inside of someone or some stars. And at some point in the universe ejects desperation to be captured from the Dim ancestor of the Earth.

  The same is true for the raw materials of human existence, oxygen, iron, or calcium, the body or the mind. Is persistent products Star machining. The suicide of the star that the spread once as stellar dust doesn't seem an act of pointless. Shocking though is the idea, though we are made of star dust. And our life we owe to someone's death star.



 Black holes or the dark prospect of a very large star.

The stars that the mass is greater than the Chandrasekhar limit face big problems when exhaust their nuclear fuel. In some cases it may explode or manage to eject enough mass in order to reduce the remaining mass below these limits and so to avoid catastrophic gravitational collapse. But it is hard to believe that something always happens, no matter how big a star. Why how know the stars that should "weaken". And if even the stars managed to eventually lose enough mass to avoid collapse, what would happen if they had more mass a white dwarf or a neutron star so that transcends the limits? Would collapse to infinite density? 

  Sir Arthur Eddington Professor at the University of Cambridge (where the Chandrasekhar went to study) and pundit in the general theory of relativity, refused to believe the results of Chandrasekhar, thought not possible a star to shrink to zero dimensions to a point. Einstein himself published a work in which he argued that the stars do not shrink to zero size. 

  The Chandrasekhar proved that the exclusion principle could not stop the process of collapse of a large star with a mass greater than the Chandrasekhar limit, but the problem of what would happen in such a star in accordance with the general theory of relativity solved for the first time in 1,939, a young American the Robert Oppenheimer. However, results lead to the conclusion that there were no observable consequences that could be detected with telescopes of that time. The war followed, and the Oppenheimer was associated closely with the construction of the atomic bomb program. After the war, the problem of gravitational collapse was forgotten and returned to the news in the mid-1,960s. The Oppenheimer research continued and expanded by many scientists.

  The image of Oppenheimer's work is the following: the gravitational field of a star makes the paths that followed the rays of light in space-time to seem different from those that would follow if the star was not there. The cones of light, which shows indicative routes which would follow in space-time the rays of light that will radiant from their tops, lean slightly inward near the surface of the star. This can be observed during a solar eclipse in the curvature of rays of light from distant stars. As the star contracts, the gravitational influence of objects that lie close to the surface of the growing and light cones gravitate more toward the middle. This means that it becomes harder to escape the light from the star; it also means that, for an observer far away from the star, the light emitted by this will seem dimness and more reddish. Eventually when the star shrinks in some critical RADIUS, the gravitational field on the surface becomes so strong, and the cones of light slanting inwards so much so that the light can no longer escape from the surface of the star. But then, does not escape and any other object, since according to the general theory of relativity, nothing can move at a speed greater than that of light. Everything trapped in the gravitational field. So we have a set of facts, a region of space-time, where nothing can escape and to reach an observer far away from the star. This is the area we now call black hole. The limit is called the event horizon and identified with the paths of light rays that are unable to escape from the black hole.

  To understand what we would see if you were observing a star collapsing to form a black hole, we must remember that in theory of relativity there is no absolute time, every Observer has his own measure of time. The time for an observer located on a star different from the time someone facing away from it, since the gravitational field of the star doing the events happening in the area of the first look that is delayed in relation to the corresponding events happening in the area of the second. Suppose an intrepid astronaut, located on the surface of a star collapsing from the pull of gravity and that every one second, according to its own clock, sends a light signal to the spacecraft, which is orbiting the star. At some point, let's say at 11:00 clock astronaut aboard the star, the star's surface shrink below the critical RADIUS where the gravitational pull is so strong that nothing can escape to space. So bright marks of astronaut aboard the star would be delayed more and more, i.e. intervals between two successive marks will become increasingly greater than one second. These differences would be very small, however, until 10:59:59. We should expect a period of little more than a second to get the signal that sent their colleague at 10:59:58 and 10:59:59. But I had to wait forever mark of 11:00. The waves of light that will emissed from the star's surface from 10:59:59 until 11:00, always in accordance with the astronaut's clock located on the star, you were spreading in infinite time in accordance with the space ship's clock. The time interval between arrival then two successive waves in the spaceship will constantly grew and so the light from the star would look increasingly dim and reddish. Eventually, the light from the star would be so dim, so as to position in Space would remain a black blank, a black hole. So, the unlucky astronaut who will try to explore a black hole does not find just the way back closed. Before definitively disintegrating, feels his body stretching unimaginable height, under the cataclysmic gravitational pull, and acquire accelerations blinding. Perhaps, however, the astronaut to prove less unfortunate than that believed. Because, according to a bold theoretical terms, a channel from the black hole will lead him to another point of the universe but millions of years in the past or, even better, in a totally different Universe.

  In more simple terms, very large stars and after the eruption of the supernova, their core is threatened by a new and dramatic possibility. The collapse of the same matter. When the remaining mass of the star, has a mass a few times larger than the Sun, the core defense lines to form as a white dwarf or neutron star is nonexistent. Gravity overcomes and seemingly uncompressed sphere of neutrons, thus starting to touch each other. The matter led to a substantial lack of status, or in a situation that is unknown to us. Literally, it formed is a black hole. A curvature of space and time where, because of the enormous gravity field, neither body nor the same light it is possible to escape. The black hole indicates a region of space extremely small in volume, where the huge material of die star contradicting itself. 
Black holes are inevitable prediction of the general theory of relativity. When the star who dies compressed in smaller dimensions from the horizon, no power cannot restrain the sequential contraction and final collapse of matter into a single point of the so-called "point mutations". The material acquires there infinite density and even infinite gets the power of gravity field. Space and time do not exist as separate entities of their own, and since there is no theory of quantum gravity, any knowledge of physics breaks down. The quirky this mathematical anomaly in the center of a black hole has the law of zero point of space-time, where the big bang came the Universe. 

  But if light does not escape from a black hole-but on the contrary, every body or radiation that will pass from the point of view, absorbed or captured forever-the question of how to detect a similar, nominally only astral body. The detection is done in a roundabout way: from strong gravitational phenomena observed in the vicinity of a black hole or from large energy dissipation, we assume that accompany the accelerated descent of a mass to it. An almost definite black hole has been identified so the constellation Cygnus, which is 10,000 light-years from us. The mass calculated six times solar, and is probably the invisible companion of a giant star, that the movement is not interpreted in any other way. The double system is a powerful source of x-rays emitting radiation as produced material ejected from the star travels toward the black hole. According to some other indications, a black hole with a mass of tens of thousands of times greater than that of the Sun lay in wait at the center of our galaxy. In the presence of, perhaps, is the radio emission and infrared observed in neighboring areas in the Centre of the Galaxy. Is still likely, similar or larger black hole exists in the Centre of quasar, the enigmatic objects detected in the confines of the universe. So interpreted that the radiation quasar a thousand times more than an entire Galaxy!

  In accordance with a case of S. Hawking universe is scattered by small black holes formed during the big bang. These primordial black holes have masses as a big mountain; do not exceed in size the nucleus of an atom.


Sources of Information
Giorgos Grammatikakis "Earl Of Vereniki", "Kosmografimata"
M.Danezis-S.Theodosiou “The Universe I Loved”
Steven Hawking "Chronicle of Time"

Stuart Clark “Galaxy”

Jim Al Khalili "Black Holes, Wormholes and Time Machines"


Dimitris Nikolaidis

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